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Srpska slova u elektronskoj komunikaciji

Ako je rezonovati po onome što viđam u e-mail-u i browser-u poslednjih nekoliko godina, većina korisnika srpskog govornog područja u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji ne koriste sva slova abecede.

Ne korišćenje Č,Ć,Š,Đ,Ž slova za krajnji rezultat ima stvaranje pogrešne navike, šteti kulturnom nasledju i ograničava pristup informacijama u elektronskoj formi.

Verujem da su prva dva kristalno jasna, te za početak pogledajte razlike kada u Google pretraživaču postavite upit za reč čarobnjak / carobnjak ili za reči nasa slova / naša slova. Kao što se da videti rezultati su poprilično različiti. Da ne spominjem smešne situacije tipa pevac - pevač i sl.

Dobro došli u 21. vek

Na ideju da napišem ovaj tekst došao sam nedavno, shvativši da ljudi sa kojima komuniciram:

  1. ne znaju da mogu da pišu na svom jeziku - od A do Ž (uključujući tu i misteriozna Č,Ć,Š,Đ,Ž slova)
  2. nemaju uputstvo kako da instaliraju podršku i koriste naša slova (za manje od 5 minuta)
  3. intuitivno prave razliku izmedju č,ć i c (ova je verujem navika, nastala iz postojeće prakse "bez-zubog" pisanja)

Iz ovoga se jasno vidi da postoji potreba da se objasni kako stvari funkcionišu i da se pruže instrukcije kako instalirati podršku pod Microsoft i Apple operativnim sistemima. U slučaju da se omasovi naša elektronska pismenost ;) navike se možda i promene.

Ovaj tekst će objasniti instaliranje podrške i korišćenje latiničnog pisma. Detalji vezani za korišćenje ćirilice biće objašnjeni u nekom od sledećih tekstova.

Tehnička strana

Korisnik koji želi da koristi slova željenog jezika, prvo treba da doda podršku za taj jezik. Pod podrškom se podrazumeva dodatna "tastatura" [keyboard layout]. U pitanju nije tastatura kao fizički objekat već tastatura kao definisani raspored slova svojstven tom jeziku.

Microsoft to zove "Input Language" (Windows XP) ili "Input Locale" (Windows 2000) ili "Keyboard Language" (Windows 98) dok je kod Apple družine to "Keyboard menu" (OS X 10.5) odnosno "Language & Text" (OS X 10.6).

Unicode

Idejom da svi jezici sveta budu deo jednog standarda i da svako slovo i znak ima svoj jedinstven broj, Unicode standard je osnova današnje internacionalizacije. Većina modernih operativnih sistema i programa koji rade pod njima podržavaju Unicode, što pruža korisnicima da jednostavnim instaliranjem "nacionalne" tastature pišu ili preciznije rečeno, kucaju ;) slovima željenog jezika.

Encoding

Da bi aplikacije prepoznale tekst, dokumenti (Web strana ili e-mail) moraju da imaju definisan "encoding".
Evo primera kako to izgleda u zaglavlju e-mail poruke i Web strane:

E-mail:
Content-Type: text/plain; format=flowed; charset=utf-8
Web strana:
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">

Pre instalacije

Pre nego što krenete u dodavanje podrške za naša slova, važno je znati sledeće:

  • Instaliranje podrške se radi na nivou operativnog sistema. Takođe, u programima za e-mail komunikaciju je potrebno izabrati "encoding" koji podržava naša slova (više o tome kasnije u tekstu)
  • Neke aplikacije neće prepoznati naša slova iako imate instaliranu podršku. To su retki primeri i uglavnom ih čine starije aplikacije u čijem razvoju nije bio bitan element internacionalizacije.
  • Kada budete koristili naša slova, njihov raspored na tastaturi će u većini slučajeva zameniti položaj postojećih specijalnih znakova. Zašto je to tako i kako mu doskočiti, pročitajte u sledećem paragrafu.

Raspored slova na tastaturi — razlika izmedju QWERTY i QWERTZ sistema

Srpski, hrvatski i slovenački raspored tastera koristi QWERTZ sistem koji se, osim razlike u položaju slova Y i Z, razlikuje od QWERTY systema i po položaju većine specijalnih znakova (obeleženo u crvenoj boji na slici). Evo kako to u slici i reči izgleda (preuzeto i prilagođeno ovom tekstu sa International Keyboards strane)

Tastarura sa QWERTY rasporedom tastera
Tastarura sa QWERTZ rasporedom tastera

Sa promenom dolazi nešto što prija i nešto što (moguće) smeta. Ono što prija je da su sva naša slova grupisana oko tastera Enter te su novajlije na dohvat ruke. Dakle kao što se vidi na slici:

ć = '
č = ;
š = [
đ = ]
ž = \

Ono što smeta je da se većina specijalnih znakovi tipa navodnici, dvotačka, zagrade, minus i sl., sada nalaze na drugim pozicijama. Takođe, za neke znakove tipa < ili > je potrebno pritisnuti Control+Shift umesti samo Shift) te na početku nastaje totalna zbrka i traženje istih dok se ne naviknete.

Ono što ja koristim kao trik je da se prebacujem izmedju QWERTZ ("našeg") i QWERTY (engleskog) sistema u momentima kada želim da koristim pomerene znakove. Nije idealno ali je daleko efikasnije rešenje s’obzirom da je moja prepiska dvojezična te bih svakako imao problem na jednom od jezika ;)

Sve verzije MS Windows-a i Apple OS-a imaju kombinaciju tastera [prečica ili originalno shortcut] kojom birate između instaliranih tastatura [keyboard layouts]. Pod Windows-om je to Shift + Alt, dok je na Mac-u to Control + Space.

Po instaliranju podrške, pojaviće se indikator trenutno "aktivne tastature" u taskbar-u.

Windows 7 - Indikator aktivne tastature se nalazi u donjem desnom uglu ekrana. Aktiviranjem, birate željenu tastaturu.
Windows XP - Indikator aktivne tastature se nalazi u donjem desnom uglu ekrana. Aktiviranjem, birate željenu tastaturu.
Windows 8 - Indikator aktivne tastature se nalazi u donjem desnom uglu ekrana. Aktiviranjem, birate željenu tastaturu.

(1) Instalacija - Izaberite operativni sistem

Windows 8

File Explorer > Computer > Open Control Panel

  1. Pod “Clock, Language and Region” izaberite “Change input methods”
  2. Kliknite na “Add a Language”, izaberite “Srpski” i kliknite na “Open” dugme
  3. Izaberite “Srpski (Srbija)” i potvrdite klikom na “Add” dugme
  4. Srspki raspored tastera je sada instaliran. Da vidite raspored tastera, pod “Options” izaberite “Preview” opciju
Windows 8 dodavanje srpskih slova
Windows 8 biranje jezika
Windows 8 raspred slova

Windows 7

Start > Control Panel > Change keyboards or other input methods

  1. Kliknite na "Change keyboards" dugme.
  2. U novo otvorenom prozoru kliknite na "Add" dugme
  3. U novo otvorenom "Add Input Language" prozoru na listi pronadjite Serbian (Latin, Serbia) opciju, kliknite na plus dugme pored nje i pod Keyboard menijem izaberite Serbian (Latin).
  4. Potvrdite izbor na "OK" taster i to ponovite u preostalom prozoru.
  5. U donjem desnom uglu će se pojaviti indikator "tastature".
  6. Tastaturu može aktivirati kliknom na ikonu ili kombinacijom Shift + Alt tastera na vašoj tastaturi.
Windows 7 dodavanje srpskih slova

Windows XP

Start > Control Panel > Regional and Language option > Languages > Details > Settings

  1. Pod "Installed services" izaberite Add opciju.
  2. U novo otvorenom prozoru izaberite Serbian (Latin) tastaturu.
  3. Potvrdite izbor na "OK" taster i to ponovite u preostalom prozoru.
  4. U donjem desnom uglu se pojavio indikator "tastature".
  5. Brza izmena "tastatura" se aktivira na Shift + Alt

Windows 2000

Start > Settings > Control Panel > Regional Options > General

  1. Pod "Language settings for the system" izaberite Central Europe i to potvrdite na taster "Apply".
  2. Ovo će aktivirati Windows da instalira dodatnu podršku na vašem računaru, za koju će vam trebati instalacioni Windows CD.
  3. Ubacite instalacioni CD i ako je potrebno izaberite "i386" folder.
  4. Posle uspešne instalacije Windows bi trebalo restartovati.
  5. Pošto što smo dodali Centralo Evropsku podršku ostalo je da dodamo i podršku za tastaturu koja ima latinični set slova za srpski jezik.
  6. Start > Settings > Control Panel > Regional Options > Input Locales
  7. Pod "Installed input locales" izaberite Add opciju.
  8. U novo otvorenom prozoru izaberite Serbian (Latin) tastaturu.
  9. Potvrdite izbor na "OK" taster i to ponovite na preostalom prozoru.
  10. U donjem desnom uglu se pojavio indikator "tastature".
  11. Brza izmena "tastatura" se aktivira na Shift + Alt

Windows 98

Za razliku od Windows-a 2000 u Windows-u 98 je dovoljno dodati samo podršku za tastaturu. Takodje, pod Serbian opcijom dobićete podršku za ćirilicu, tako da je potrebno izabrati Slovenian ili Croatian opcije.

Start > Settings > Control Panel > Keyboard > Language

  1. Pod "Installed keyboard languages and layouts" izaberite Add opciju.
  2. U novo otvorenom prozoru izaberite Slovenian ili Croatian tastaturu.
  3. Potvrdite izbor na "OK" taster i to ponovite na preostalom prozoru.
  4. U donjem desnom uglu se pojavio indikator "tastature".
  5. Brza izmena "tastatura" se aktivira na Shift + Alt

Apple OS X (Snow Leopard)

Poslednja verzija OS X pruža podršku za srpska slova koja možete dodati tako što ćete ispratiti sledeće korake:

  1. System Preferences > Language & Text
  2. Pod "Input Sources" dodajte Serbian (ćirilica) i/ili Serbian - Latin
  3. Po uspešnoj instalaciji u menu bar-u će se pojaviti indikator tastature.
  4. Raspored tastature možete menjati klikom indikator tastature (zastavica) ili pritiskom na predefinisanu kombinaciju tastera. Kombinaciju tastera možete promeniti klikom na Keyboard shortcuts dugme
OS X Leopard dodavanje srpskih slova

Apple OS X (Leopard)

Ova verzija OS X pruža podršku za srpska slova koja možete dodati tako što ćete ispratiti sledeće korake:

  1. System Preferences > International > Input Menu
  2. Pod "Input Menu" dodajte Serbian - Latin
  3. Po uspešnoj instalaciji u menu bar-u će se pojaviti indikator tastature.
  4. Raspored tastature možete menjati klikom indikator tastature (zastavica) ili pritiskom na Apple key + Spacebar
OS X Leopard dodavanje srpskih slova

Apple OS X (Jaguar)

Apple OS X za sada ne podržava srpski raspored tastera, te na raspolaganju preostaju Croatian ili Slovenian opcije (kao i pod Windows 98). Kao što se može videti na slici, Apple družina koristi zastave zemalja za razliku od Microsoft-a koji koristi dvoslovne skraćenice tipa EN za engleski jezik ili SR za srpski jezik.

System Preferences > International > Input Menu

  1. Pod "Input Menu" dodajte Slovenian (u OS X Jaguar-u ne postoji srpska tastatura)
  2. Po uspešnoj instalaciji u menu bar-u odmah do "Help" menija će se pojaviti indikator tastature.
  3. Bitno je zapamtiti da neke aplikacije ne podržavaju Unicode. Podršku je najlakše proveriti preko "Get Info" opcije na željenoj aplikaciji (Command + Option + I). U slučaju da aplikacija ne podržava Unicode input, "tastaturu" nije moguće promeniti.
Apple OS X - Indikator aktivne tastature se nalazi u gornjem desnom uglu ekrana. Aktiviranjem, birate željenu tastaturu.
 Đeram, mačkavalj, mašta, žabac

(2) Podešavanje e-mail aplikacije

Posle instalacije podrške na nivou operativnog sistema, u e-mail aplikaciji je potrebno izabrati "encoding" koji podržava naša slova. Biranje “encoding-a” utiče samo na slanje email-a koji sadrži naša slova. Primanje email-a zavisi isključivo od “encoding-a” u kome je poslat email.

Popularni Webmail servisi kao što su Yahoo i Hotmail podržavaju Unicode. U slučaju da vam Browser ne prikazuje pravilno naša slova, probajte sa promenom “encoding-a” pod View > Encoding i izaberite Unicode (UTF-8) opciju.

Izaberite e-mail aplikaciju:

MS Outlook Express

Tools > Options > Send

Pod "Default Encoding" izaberite Unicode (UTF-8)

 Unicode (UTF-8)

Mozilla Thunderbird / Mozilla Suite

Tools > Options > Fonts & Languages

Pod "Outgoing Mail" izaberite Unicode (UTF-8)

 User Default

Ritlabs The Bat

Account > Properties > Templates > New Message

Pod "Character set" izaberite Central European (ISO-8859-2). Ritelabs je najavio podršku za Unicode tako da do tada možete koristiti Central European encoding.

 Central European (ISO-8859-2)
By saki on Jan 8, 2004 in

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